This process of generating garbage and what becomes of it when it is
thrown away produces greenhouse gases (GHGs) in a variety of ways.
There is an enormous amount that a community can do to reduce the waste
that it produces. Helping citizens reduce waste is part of a program to
protect the climate.
In 2003 the U.S
produced more than 236 million tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), or
trash. This is equal to approximately 4.5 pounds of waste per person
The sources of waste generation break down as follows:
Yard Trimmings: 12.1%
Food Scraps: 11.7%
Rubber, Leather, and Textiles: 7.4%
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website
The anaerobic decomposition of waste in landfills produces methane.
The incineration of waste produces CO2 as a by-product.
The transportation of waste to disposal sites produces GHGs from the equipment’s fuel combustion.
The disposal of materials indicates
that new products are being produced as replacements; this production
often requires the use of fossil fuels to obtain raw materials and
manufacture the items.”
four main stages of product life-cycle (raw
material acquisition, manufacturing, recycling, and waste management)
and illustrates how they connect with GHG emissions.
Similarly, reducing this waste (through source reduction, recycling and
composting) can reduce the methane emitted from landfills, GHG emissions
from incinerators, and carbon dioxide emitted from energy consumption.
Using fewer wood and paper
products decreases deforestation and can result in increased capacity of
forests to sequester carbon.
United States Environmental Protection Agency
There are several
management strategies for cities to consider in reducing their waste
Source reduction is
a management strategy to reduce the amount of waste
generated from the beginning. These initiatives include altering the
design, manufacture and use of materials to decrease the amount of
materials that are sent to the landfill. Although cities cannot dictate
these practices throughout the community, there are ways to educate
businesses and residents to enable them to institute practices that
eliminate waste before it is created. One approach is to implement
environmental purchasing policies. These policies and practices for
municipal operations are described in the Best Bets Section of Chapter
5. Cities can also encourage local businesses to create products in
more environmentally friendly ways. Approaches
like Design for Environment, and lean manufacturing are gaining in
popularity, in part because they reduce the cost of producing goods.
Much of the focus of
MSW management is on diverting waste that is sent to the landfill after
it has already been created or disposed of. According to the EPA,
recycling and composting diverted 72 million tons of material away from
disposal in 2003 - up from 15 million tons in 1980, when the recycle
rate was just 10% and 90% of MSW was being landfilled.
Materials that are recycled include
batteries, recycled at a rate of 93%, paper and paperboard at 48%, and
yard trimmings at 56%. Some cities provide curbside recycling programs drop-off
centers, buy-back programs and deposit systems.
Recycling reduces GHG emissions at two levels: emissions from landfill
or incineration and emissions saved from avoiding further need for the virgin
material. Energy savings that can be achieved from recycling depend in
part on energy intensity of virgin versus recycled material, but range
as illustrated by the table below.
Table: EPA Waste Management and Energy Savings: Benefits by the
Composting is the process of diverting organic waste from the landfill,
enabling it to be converted to a soil amendment and using it as
fertilizer. Not only does this keep the material from rotting in the
landfill and releasing methane, but it reintroduces the carbon to the
soil where it can be held for years. Since 1997 the city of Clifton, New Jersey has been actively engaged in educating citizens about waste
reduction and climate change. As part of this, the city promotes
backyard composting and leaving grass clippings on the lawn.
An education campaign explains that, “for every 7.4 tons of materials the city composts, it decreases
greenhouse gas emissions by an amount equal to the
annual emissions of one car.” Due to composting grass and food waste,
the city estimates citizens have reduced GHG emissions equivalent to 582
cars’ annual emissions.
Yard trimmings and
food residuals together constitute 23% of the U.S. municipal solid waste
Compostable material includes:
Coffee grounds and filters
Dryer and vacuum cleaner
Fruits and vegetables
Hair and fur
Hay and straw
programs can be carried out differently depending upon the cities’
needs. Common composting methods include source separation of organic
compostables done by residents or businesses and separation of mixed
waste streams at a centralized location. Major concerns in any
composting program include the quality of the compost produced, the
cost, and residential involvement.
to Cornell Waste Management Institute Fact Sheets on Composting:
There are several trade-offs between
source separation and centralized separation of compostables. It is
clear that source separation can produce a higher
quality, less contaminated compost, as well as maximize the recycling of
glass and paper. And while source separation is generally less
convenient for the waste generator, pilot programs are finding that many
generators like to do it. However, two other important factors, the
overall system cost and the quantities of materials recovered for
recycling and composting, have not yet been adequately researched or
it is generally believed that mixed waste collection leads to in
increased participation, the results are not conclusive. A few pilot
studies have shown that programs requiring separated compostables can
have high participation rates as well. For example, projections for
materials diverted from landfills for separated streams usually range
from 25-50%. Fillmore County in Minnesota has exceeded these
projections with 50% compostable diversion rate with an additional
15-20% for recycled material.
residential and business involvement is clearly important to maximize
the success of composting programs. To educate and encourage
participation, the city of Santa Clara offers a master
composter training course. The program started in 1995 to educate
residents in starting and maintaining home compost. Upon completing the program, master
composters are required to volunteer 50 hours to conduct composting
workshops and educational outreach in their community. In the past 10
years, the program has trained 275 people, who have collectively donated
over 24,000 hours of volunteer time.
to EPA, “To reduce waste volume, local governments or private operators
can implement a controlled burning process called combustion or
incineration. In addition to reducing volume, combustors, when properly
equipped, can convert water into steam to fuel heating systems or
generate electricity. Materials can be removed for recycling prior to
MSW can generate energy while reducing the amount of waste by up to 90%
in volume and 75% in weight. In 2001, there were 97 combustors in the
United States with energy recovery with the capacity to burn up to
95,000 tons of MSW per day.
While scrubbers and filters can reduce pollutants emitted into the air,
incineration still produces carbon dioxide as a by-product, as well as
other harmful emissions.
Environmental impacts of MSW-fired power generation plants include:
Land Use Resources
Modular incinerators, which burn 15-100 tons per day, are small mass burn plants. The main advantage to this system is flexibility - if more capacity is needed, more units can be added onto existing ones. Costs limit the use of this technology because the payback in terms of energy produced over time is much lower than in mass burn plants.
Mass Burning Systems, which burn 200-750 tons per day per unit. The resulting steam can be used for industrial uses or generating electricity. These can combust without any preprocessing or separation, although most mass burn plants can remove non-combustible steel and iron for recycling before combustion using magnetic separation processes. Other non-ferrous metals can be recovered from the leftover ash
Refuse-derived fuel systems process solid waste before it is burned. A typical plant will
remove non-combustible items, such as glass, metals and other recyclable materials. The remaining solid waste is then shredded into smaller pieces for burning. RDF plants require significantly more sorting and handling than mass burn, but can recover recyclables and remove potentially environmentally harmful materials prior to combustion. RDF can be burned in power boilers at factories or even at large housing complexes.
of landfills in the United States is steadily decreasing—from 8,000 in
1988 to 1,767 in 2002. The capacity, however, has remained relatively
constant. New landfills are much larger than in the past.
to the EPA, MSW landfills are the largest source of human-related
methane emissions in the United States, accounting for about 25% of
these emissions in 2004. These methane emissions from landfills
represent a lost opportunity to capture
and use a significant energy resource. Landfill gas (LFG) is created as
organic solid waste decomposes in a landfill. This gas consists of
about 50% methane (CH4),
the primary component of natural gas, about 50% carbon dioxide (CO2),
and a small amount of non-methane organic compounds.
Projects to capture
and use landfill gas are explained and examples provided in Chapter 5,
Best Bets, Municipal Infrastructure Section.
Rapid City, SD
realization that their landfills were quickly filling Rapid
City, South Dakota, initiated an aggressive composting and
recycling programs. A Solid Waste Plan was first passed by the
City Council in 1992, but it was not until 2003 that the plan
became fully operational.
According to Barbara Petroff, project manager for USFilter's
IPS Composting System, which was used in the facility, these
efforts will extend the life of the landfill by 30 years and
enable the city to avoid the purchase of over 1,000 additional
composts wastewater biosolids, food, paper, yard waste and other
organic residuals and is designed to convert 213 tons of waste
into compost per day. A chemical scrubber and biofilter treat
the processed air generated at the composting building to
remove odors. The city sells the compost for use in golf
courses, nursery potting soil, reclaiming land and other
applications, for about $20-30 yard. These sales help pay for
operating the compost facility, which uses no tax dollars to maintain operations.
IPS Composting System
In 2004, the
Northwest Indiana Solid Waste District Board
began offering education grants for schools in the six-county
district. The funds are available for schools to support waste
reduction education and recycling. $30,000 is appropriated each
year with each county receiving up to $5,000. This augments
funding the district has had available for cities and towns
Each year, the
District Board allocates $120,000 for the Cities and Towns Grant
Program to implement or expand waste management programs that
coincide with the District's objectives for waste reduction.
The purpose of the grant is to support integrated waste
management programs around source reduction, recycling,
composting and education. $20,000 is allotted for division among
the successful applicants from each
county. Cities and towns must match grants given by the board
by 25%; however, education grants given to schools do not have a
The Board is
involved in outreach and education projects throughout the
district. Funding for the Board and for grants comes from
landfill tipping fees collected in the district. The District
encourages creativity and unique planning for projects. A short
list of some suggestions is provided here:
curbside recycling program–purchasing bins and promotion
Starting a drop-off recycling program–purchasing equipment and promotion
Starting a yardwaste collection program–purchasing equipment and promotion
Starting a backyard composting program–organizing a sale of bins and education
Equipment purchases–to expand current recycling or waste reduction programs
Market enhancement activities–organizing events to promote recycled items
Educational or promotional activities–fairs, festivals, etc.
Buying recycled products–large items for public places to promote recycled items
Northwest Indiana Solid Waste
Palo Alto, CA
The city of
Palo Alto, California adopted a Zero Waste Resolution in 2005.
The goal is to divert 73% of their waste by 2011 and 100% by
The Council also adopted the Zero Waste Strategic Plan as
guidance for city staff to achieve the goals.
In 2003, the
total tons generated were 166,548. The current city diversion
rate of 57% equals about 95,000 tons per year. To achieve its
goals for 73% diversion by 2011 as part of a Zero Waste
Strategic Plan, the city needs to divert an additional 26,000
tons per year of materials.
processing, transfer and disposal costs are about $82.50/ton.
On that basis, the avoided costs of processing, transfer and
disposal for this additional 26,000 tons would be approximately
assumptions detailed in its strategic management plan, the city
estimates that diverting this amount will result in an overall
savings of over $800,000 per year.
Management Plan suggests city programs, policies, rates, and
financial and contractual commitments should be adjusted to help
achieve the Zero Waste goal as follows:
Encourage All Sectors to Implement Zero Waste.
Develop Infrastructure Beyond Recycling.
Lead by Example and Advocate Zero Waste.
Update Waste Data and Develop Zero Waste Operational Plan.
Solid Waste Manager
San Jose, CA
San Jose has
been one of the leaders in creating incentives for reducing
waste by implementing “pay as you throw”
policies. Citizens are charged to dispose of garbage and the
rate is based on the size of garbage carts. Recycling is
unlimited at no charge.
As San Jose
website states “By recycling as much as you can, you will be
able to use the smaller garbage cart sizes, which cost less.”
San Jose is
one of the few cities that recycles more than 64% of their solid
waste. Since the curbside recycling started the city has
372,000 tons of newspaper
277,000 tons of mixed paper
132,000 tons of glass
135,000 tons of mixed recyclables
1,900,000 tons of yard trimmings
San Jose, CA: Curbside Setout
community waste prevention toolkit was created by INFORM to help a city
walk through eight key questions:
Who is responsible
for waste disposal, recycling, and waste prevention in your area?
Which political subdivision (e.g., the city, town, county, etc.) is responsible for solid waste prevention, recycling, and disposal policies and programs? What role does the state play in solid
waste regulation, funding, etc?
Which specific agency or office is
responsible for overseeing solid waste prevention, recycling, and
disposal? Who heads it? To whom does this agency report on its
operation? Are any other governing bodies involved in an oversight or
Who is the community (and
state) waste prevention program manager? If there is no such position,
who is the recycling coordinator? Is promoting waste prevention
officially part of his or her job responsibility? Does the community
have any additional staff devoted to waste prevention programs and
policy development? What are their responsibilities?
What is the size
of the waste challenge?
How much waste does the
community/state generate each year, either by weight (tonnage) or volume
(cubic yards)? Are waste generation rates increasing, as they are
nationally? Where is this information published? How much waste did
the community/state generate in the most recent year? What is the trend
in generation over the last five years? Absolute waste and waste per
capita? What is projected for the next five? Absolute and per capita?
What goals have been set for waste generation, disposal, recycling, and waste prevention?
Do specific goals for waste prevention exist? Are they distinct from goals for recycling? How do the goals compare to
other state or municipal goals? Have the recycling and waste prevention goals been met? How much waste prevention is projected over the next five years?
How does the
community handle its waste?
Is it collected by the
municipality or by private carters? Is waste generated by residents,
institutions and businesses handled differently? How much waste goes to
landfill, to incineration, and to recycling? What are the landfill,
incineration and recycling trends over the last five years? What is
projected for the next five years?
What waste prevention strategies are being used?
Does the community operate
or fund any materials reuse programs, such as drop-off sites, a
telephone hotline or a web site facilitating donations and/or exchanges
of furniture, appliances, office equipment, art supplies and other items
that can be reused?
Has the community or state
banned curbside collection or disposal of certain items such as tires,
batteries, yard waste, appliances and computer monitors in order to
promote reuse and recycling?
Does the community operate
or fund on-site composting, "leave-it-on-the-lawn," or other waste
prevention programs for grass, leaves, food scraps, and other types of
organic materials? Does it help residents to set up their own backyard
composting systems? Do any public offices or institutions compost their
Does the local government
have a program to send surplus items to other public offices or
institutions for reuse? Does it operate a surplus warehouse? How does
the government agency in charge of the surplus program publicize the
availability of reusable items to potential recipients? Is the
warehouse easily accessible to government employees? Are available
items listed on the Internet?
Do local schools and other public institutions with food service facilities use reusable dishes and/or cutlery? If not, do they have access to (and space for) dishwashing equipment? How much are they paying to buy and dispose of single-use items?
Are leftover paint, carpet, fixtures and other items from construction projects diverted to other community projects?
How does the
community educate the public about waste prevention and recycling?
Are there any ad campaigns devoted specifically to waste prevention? Are any written materials provided to residents, businesses and public institutions? How are they disseminated?
What is the waste economic picture?
How much of the community's budget is used to pay for solid waste collection, processing, and disposal (tipping fees)? What is the budget for waste prevention (beyond what is available to promote recycling)? Is the waste prevention budget commensurate with the portion of waste it is expected to address? What is the cost per ton of the community's waste prevention, recycling and disposal programs?
Does the community provide residents, businesses, and/or public institutions with economic incentives to reduce their generation of waste? For example, do residents, businesses or public institutions pay for disposal based on the amount of waste they generate?
What laws and public policies promote waste prevention?
Has the local or state government adopted any goals or mandates for reducing the amount of waste generated (in addition to recycling goals and mandates)? What are the respective timeframes for reaching these goals or mandates? How does the community plan to measure whether waste reduction goals or mandates have been met?
Has the community or state passed any legislation promoting waste prevention, such as mandatory bottle deposits or requirements that product manufacturers collect electronics, batteries, carpeting or other items for reuse or recycling (considered to be "extended producer responsibility" requirements).
Has the locality enacted any executive orders or laws directing government agencies to practice waste prevention and/or environmentally preferable purchasing? Are public agencies encouraged to use products powered by alternatives to batteries or to use rechargeable batteries? Do public agencies use duplexing copiers and printers, remanufactured laser toner cartridges and other waste-reducing products? Who is in charge of the community's EPP program?
Does the local government encourage vendors to practice waste prevention? For example, have government contracts been written to give preference to or require vendors to ship their products in bulk or reusable containers?
Does the local government or state provide incentives for businesses to practice waste prevention? For example, does it provide financial support to businesses that want to acquire dishwashing equipment? Is technical support available to facilitate waste prevention among businesses? Does the community reward or publicize companies that encourage waste prevention (for example, by taking back hangers and packaging material for reuse)?
WasteWise is a free, voluntary, EPA program through which organizations
eliminate costly municipal solid waste and select industrial wastes,
benefiting their bottom line and the environment. WasteWise is a
flexible program that allows partners to design their own waste
reduction programs tailored to their needs.
Reduction Model (WARM)
EPA online calculator created
to help solid waste planners and organizations track and voluntarily
report greenhouse gas emissions reductions from several different waste
management practices. yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ActionsWasteWARM.html
The USCC is a trade and professional organization promoting compost.
They are involved in research, public education, composting and compost
standards, expansion of compost markets and the enlistment of public
No. 62,849–N.S, Adopted March 22, 2005
Reaffirming the city’s zero waste goal and referring the issue to the
solid waste commission.